Bestor, Theodore C., “How Sushi Went Global.” In The Cultural Politics of Food and Eating: A Reader, edited by James L. Watson and Melissa L. Caldwell, 13-21. Blackwell Readers in Anthropology: 8. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2005.

This essay will be used to show how one specific food item has changed American society not only in cuisine but economically also. Tuna trade is an example of globalization of regional industry, international competition, and environmental regulations. The growing appetite for sushi started from the movement of ideas from East to West. New consumers in the West and the Japanese need for foreign fish and tuna suppliers because of sea and fishing rights helped to globalize the economic food way of sushi.

Chen, Yong. “Recreating the Chinese American Home through Cookbook Writing.” Social Research 81, no. 2 (2014): 489-501.

Chinese American women used cookbook writing as a vehicle to search for and create a place that they call home. The cookbooks were both personal and a social text that confirmed and redefined gender roles. The cookbooks also showed the existing trends and conditions of the time. For many of the predominately women writers, the cookbooks were a source of livelihood and a way to carve out a space for themselves. The exposure of these books were done through Chinese restaurants that also served non-Chinese patrons expanding the Chinese cooking to other races. The fellow academics and students who will look at this article will be able to take away how cuisine of American culture, through the translated cookbooks, was expanded and changed.

Chen, Yong. Chop Suey, USA: The Story of Chinese Food in America. NY; Columbia University Press, 2014.

The main question of the book is why Chinese food became so popular. Chen lays out some reasons for this. The first being the change in socioeconomic conditions leading to a more leisurely based lifestyle. Another being the Chinese Americans who transplanting, preserved, and promoted the cuisine through the decades. This was done through the division of labor based on race and culture in the early years of the creation and expansion of Chinese restaurants and Chinatowns. The marginalization and exploitation of the Chinese American is overpowered by the resistance and perseverance they have to make a life for themselves. These livelihoods were built on family run Chinese restaurants that cater to both Chinese and non-Chinese consumers. It was the non-Chinese consumers that the food was changed for who question the authenticity of Chinese American food. This source will be used to examine the factors surrounding Americanized Chinese food and the locations of Chinatowns as the main areas of exposure to American culture.

Coe, Andrew. Chop Suey: A Cultural History of Chinese Food in the United States. NY; Oxford University Press, 2009.

This source will be used as a historical text to show the progression of America’s taste buds to Chinese flavors and cuisine. The book is arranged like a story, starting with the first interaction between Americans and Chinese food in China then its globalization to American soil with the arrival of Chinese immigrants in the mid-1800s mines. The book lays out the American reaction to Chinese food. They wanted it but were also repulsed by what they tasted. This lead to a change in Chinese American food and what is found in China.

Laudan, Rachel. The Food of Paradise: Exploring Hawaii’s Culinary Heritage. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1996.

In contrast to the other sources, this book looks at Hawaii’s cuisines. Though a part of the United States, the food is greatly separated from the ‘Mainland’s bland food’. ‘Local Food’ of the islands is a harmonic mix of foods from other nations that surround it in the large ocean. The book is expansive in the way it looks at Local Food and some of the surprising influences to it.

Lee, Heather R., “A Life of Cooking for Others: The Work and Migration Experiences of a Chinese Restaurant Worker in New York City, 1920-1946.” In Eating Asian American edited by Robert Ji-Song Ku and Martin F. Manalansan IV and Anita Mannur, 53-72. New York: New York University Press, 2013.

“Chinese restaurants were not just places of consumption… but were also sites of complex networks of chain migration, labor, and familial obligation (55). The workers in the Chinese American restaurants were there illegally because of the exclusion on Chinese workers but were also family relations to the owners. While in the United States they were there to support families back in China. They endured the hardships in the States because of pressure from family there and in China to support them and make a place for them. This essay will be used to look at the life of workers in America and the effects of Chinatowns for Chinese workers and a place for non-Chinese consumers to experience Chinese cuisine.

Liu, Haiming, and Lianlian Lin. “Food, Culinary Identity, and Transnational Culture: Chinese Restaurant Business in Southern California.” Journal of Asian American Studies 12, no. 2 (2009): 135-62.

The article will be used to show the change in Chinese food has gone through while it also changed American ideas on authentic culture and cuisine. Restaurant business with Chinese American owners reflect the social background, lifestyle, and ethnic identity of post 1965 immigration. Selective assimilation and a rejection of American transnationalism in favor of Chinese transnationalism shows a determination by Chinese Americans to keep their ethnic identity. It is expected for immigrants to want to assimilate American society. The author talks about the normalization of Chinese food in American food culture and how the more authentic it is the higher the popularity compared to the Americanized versions.

Mendelson, Anne. Chow Chop Suey: Food and the Chinese American Journey. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016.

The book will be used to look at the early decades of Chinese American cuisine and interaction with the West consumers. Historical events and culinary issues are reflected in Chinese American restaurants and cookbooks from late 1890s to 1990. The author looks at this through the ‘qualifications to seek fortune on Gold Mountain’ or traveling to America to make a living for yourself there and your family back home. The important features of ‘chop suey’ were invented for non-Chinese consumers who later looked for ‘authentic’ Chinese cuisine. The Americanization of Chinese cuisine is further seen in the publication of English-language Chinese cookbooks.

Padoongpatt, Mark. “Oriental Cookery: Devouring Asian and Pacific Cuisine during the Cold War.” In Eating Asian American edited by Robert Ji-Song Ku and Martin F. Manalansan IV and Anita Mannur, 186-207. New York: New York University Press, 2013.

This essay will be used to look at the early decades of Asian American cuisine in America and the adaption of the cuisine for non-Chinese consumers. “White American women participated in the romance and tragedy of US global expansion by examining the historical relationship of Asian/Pacific cuisine, politics, and identity formation during the Cold War both ‘at home’ and abroad(187). For white suburban housewives Chinese cuisine and foodways were turned into central identification formation through class and race.

Ray, Krishnendu. The Migrants Table: Meals And Memories In Bengali-American Households. PA: Temple University Press, 2004.

Changes brought by immigration in the structure of everyday life especially food. The process of globalization and modernization lets cuisine speak for experience of place making. Global capitalism. The author uses four lines of inquiry, survey, ethnography, synthesis, and experience to look at space making practices and food. Space pertains to the spatial, social, and temporary spaces an immigrant makes for themselves or is defined as. The book will show the immigrants perspective on place and how food affects that.

Solt, George. The Untold History of Ramen: How Political Crisis in Japan Spawned a Global Food Craze. CA: University of California Press, 2014.

“The story of ramen is the clearest manifestation of the changing role of food in the reproduction of labor power and redefinition of the nation in Japan.” The first chapter looks at the “emergence of new foods against the backdrop of European imperialism, Chinese migration and industrialization of the Japanese economy.” Followed by the food crisis in Japan and re-industrialization. Ramen’s transformation into a fashionable youth item in the 80s and then the internationalization of it are also looked into. History through food or ordinary people who change and engage the food they eat and share. Select chapters in the book and specific ideas or questions mentioned to extend and further the ideas of food history.

Siu, Lok. “Twenty-First-Century Food Trucks; Mobility, Social Media, and Urban Hipness.” In Eating Asian American edited by Robert Ji-Song Ku and Martin F. Manalansan IV and Anita Mannur, 231-244. New York: New York University Press, 2013.

What cultural and social aspects brought the reemergence of food trucks and their young entrepreneur owners was the economic and social structure of the products themselves. Food trucks depend on social sharing to strive and find costumers. The places the owners grew up in can have a huge effect on the food that is sold also. Fusion foods are ‘hip’ and bring together many cuisines at once. This essay will be used to look at the modern ways Asian American cuisine is being sold to consumers apart from traditional restaurants.

Xia, Jingfeng. “Foodways and Their Significance to Ethnic Integration: An Ethnoarchaeological and Historical Archaeological Survey of the Chinese in Tucson, Arizona.” PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2001.

The dissertation looks specifically at the Chinese American population in Arizona. Foodways in unexpected places show how far the food practices can travel and to what degree they embed themselves in those locations. The author does an in-depth look at the foodways in Arizona and covers a wide range of sections and concerns from food practice, assimilation, background history.

Xu, Wenying. Eating Identities: Reading Food in Asian American Literature. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2008.

This will be used to look at how Asian American cuisine is written about in literature. The author breaks down five chapters and compares different Asian American author’s works of similar themes. The relationship of food and Asian American community is shown in the works the author chose including masculinity and class.

Zhang, Jie. “Transplanting Identity: A Study of Chinese Immigrants and the Chinese Restaurant Business.” PhD diss., Southern Illinois University, 1999.

The dissertation starts by looking at the literature on Chinese restaurants and immigrant business in America. The author finds the small number of literature on the topic, a leading factor in the article. The following sections look at the relationship between Americans and the Chinese business. From the formation of the business to the economic political aspects of them. The source will be compared with Coe’s book and Xia’s article.